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Thread: Comoros Islands 1810.

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    Default Comoros Islands 1810.

    The action of 3 July 1810.


    This was a minor naval engagement of the Napoleonic Wars, in which a French frigate squadron under Guy-Victor Duperré attacked and defeated a convoy of Honourable East India Company East Indiamen near the Comoros Islands.


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    Guy-Victor Duperré

    During the engagement the British convoy resisted strongly and suffered heavy casualties but two ships were eventually forced to surrender. These were the British flagship Windham, which held off the French squadron to allow the surviving ship Astell to escape, and Ceylon. The engagement was the third successful French attack on an Indian Ocean convoy in just over a year, the French frigates being part of a squadron operating from the Île de France under Commodore Jacques Hamelin.

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    Although a British frigate squadron under Josias Rowley was under orders to eliminate the French raiders, Rowley was distracted by the planned invasion of Île Bonaparte, which began the following week. Combined with limited British resources in the region, this allowed the French frigates significant freedom to attack British interests across the Ocean.

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    Josias Rowley


    The attack on Île Bonaparte was however part of a wider British strategy to seize and capture French raiding bases, and the success of the operation severely limited future French operations as Hamelin's squadron was required for the defence of Île de France. As a result, this was the last successful attack on a British merchant convoy in the Indian Ocean during the Napoleonic Wars.

    Background.

    Since the beginning of the Napoleonic Wars in 1803, French privateers and naval frigates operating from the fortified island bases of Île de France and Île Bonaparte had attacked British shipping in the Indian Ocean. The huge distances involved, restrictions on supplies and the presence of Royal Navy warships and heavily armed East Indiamen had prevented these relatively weak French ships from attacking the convoys that transported millions of pounds worth of goods from British India and the Far East to the United Kingdom. When one French squadron under Admiral Linois had tried to seize a convoy in 1805, it had been driven off by the aggressive tactics of the merchant captains.

    In late 1808, the French Navy despatched five frigates to the Indian Ocean to rendezvous at Île de France under the command of Commodore Jacques Hamelin. Although only four frigates eventually reached the French island, these were new vessels carrying 40 heavy guns each under orders to attack British shipping in the Bay of Bengal, in particular the large East Indiamen of the Honourable East India Company (HEIC). The first frigate to discover a convoys was Caroline, which attacked a Europe-bound convoy in the Action of 31 May 1809. Capturing two East Indiamen carrying over £500,000 worth of silk, Caroline brought her prizes back to the fortified port of Saint Paul on Île Bonaparte.

    The British commander at the Cape of Good Hope, Albemarle Bertie, had also been planning an operation in the Indian Ocean during 1809 and assembled a squadron under Commodore Josias Rowley with orders to blockade the French islands, probe their defences and capture them if practical. Rowley found that his small squadron was unable to engage the French frigates and that the nearest British military base, Madras in British India, was much too far to be practical for staging amphibious operations. To remedy the latter problem, Rowley seized the small French island of Rodriguez with a force of British and Indian soldiers and garrisoned it as a supply base for his ships and as a military reserve to use in landings on the French islands. The first such operation was the Raid on Saint Paul in September 1809, in which the town of Saint Paul was captured, Caroline and her prizes seized and Île Bourbon's commander Nicolas Des Bruslys driven to suicide.

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    Continued raiding.

    Despite the British attack on Saint Paul, French frigates continued to operate in the Indian Ocean, Hamelin personally leading a cruise in the Bay of Bengal during the autumn. His ships seized a number of small merchantmen and in the Action of 18 November 1809 he personally defeated and captured three large East Indiamen in convoy. Before his squadron and their prizes returned to Île de France in late December, they had also captured the British brig HMS Victor and the large Portuguese frigate Minerva. During the winter few ships were at sea, as the risk of being caught in a seasonal hurricane was considered too severe to operate between December and March. Rowley correspondingly withdrew most of his forces to the Cape of Good Hope, leaving a handful of smaller ships to watch the French islands. Hamelin too kept his forces in harbour at Île de France, replenishing his ships and recruiting sailors from the large pool of unemployed men in Port Napoleon.
    On 14 March, before Rowley could return to his blockade, Hamelin ordered a squadron to sea. This force consisted of the large frigate Bellone, the captured Minerva now renamed Minerve and the captured brig Victor. The force was led by Guy-Victor Duperré on Bellone, with Pierre Bouvet in Minerve as his second in command. Avoiding the remaining frigates of the British blockade, Duperré's ships escaped unnoticed and began cruising in the Bay of Bengal, capturing a few small vessels but making no serious impression on British trade in the region. By 1 June, Duperré had moved to the Western Indian Ocean, sailing off Madagascar in the hope of sighting British ships from Cape Town. Due to the extended period at sea, his ships were in a poor state of repair and much of the following month was spent conducting repairs at isolated beaches.

    Battle.

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    At 06:00 on 3 July, Duperré's squadron was cruising off the small island of Mayotta when sails were sighted 36 nautical miles (67 km) to the north east. Giving chase immediately, Duprée discovered that his quarry was a convoy of three large East Indiamen, Ceylon, Windham, under Captain Stewart, and Astell, commanded by Henry Meriton in Ceylon. Meriton was a highly experienced HEIC captain, who had twice been involved in successfully defending his convoy from French raiders: firstly at the Action of 4 August 1800, when his ship Exeter had actually forced the surrender of the Médée, and then at the Battle of Pulo Aura in 1804. The convoy had departed from Cape Town on 13 June with five ships, but two had to turn back after Euphrates struck a rock and began to take in water. The others continued their journey to Madras via the Mozambique Channel. One of the East Indiamen, Windham, her captain John Stewart and many of her crew had been engaged and captured by Hamelin on 22 November 1809 in the Bay of Bengal and recaptured a month later by HMS Magicienne off Île de France. While Duperré's three ships mounted 108 guns and carried fully trained naval crews, the HEIC ships had approximately 75 cannon between them and only a handful of their sailors were trained to military standards. Primarily crewed by lascar seamen, who had proven unreliable in the previous convoy actions, the merchant ships' advantages lay in their large size and the 250 soldiers of the 24th Regiment of Foot that were aboard the ships. These troops were on passage to India and would be able to provide musket fire and repel boarders should the French attempt to board.

    Confident that his squadron outclassed his opponent, Duperré ordered his ships to chase the East Indiamen, who, at Stewart's suggestion, attempted to close with the shore where the wind and waves would not be as strong and they could better resist the French attack. By 09:30 however the Astell was forced to reduce sail or risk snapping her topmasts. This slowed the British convoy, Windham and Ceylon slowing too to protect Astell. Realising that he could not outrun Duperré, Meriton decided to turn his ships about and engage the French frigates. At 11:30, Bellone closed the gap between the squadron and convoy to just 4 nautical miles (7.4 km) and Meriton ordered his ships to form an improvised battle line to meet the French attack.

    The French attacked at 14:15, Minerve approaching the British line and opening fire on the central ship Ceylon. In the intervening time, the British battleline had become disorganised, with Astell too far to the rear to properly support the other ships. With the British line wavering, Minerve and Victor closed with the convoy and began to exchange fire with the three merchant ships in a general action, during which Robert Hay, captain of Astell was seriously wounded. At 16:00, Bouvet in Minerve pulled ahead of the struggling convoy and turned as if to ram and board Windham. Hoping to use the soldiers aboard to drive off the French ship, Captain Stewart turned to meet her. The damage done to Windham was however so severe that she was unable to make the turn correctly and Minerve passed just ahead of her, raking Windham and causing severe damage, the soldiers on Windham responding with musket fire.

    As Minerve turned back towards the British convoy with the intention of cutting off the rearmost ships, Astell passed her more damaged companions to become the first ship in line. This left Windham, now at the rear, to face Minerve alone. Fortunately for Stewart, Minerve lost two topmasts as she turned to face his ship and had to pull away from the British to effect repairs. An hour and a half later, at 18:30, Bellone joined the action, attacking Windham directly. Victor supported Bellone and accompanied the flagship as she moved ahead to attack Ceylon and Astell. By 19:00, with Ceylon damaged so severely that she could no longer effectively sail or fight, third officer Tristam Fleming hauled the ship out of the battle line and ordered his crew to cease firing: Meriton and his second officer Thomas Oldham had both been seriously wounded by grape shot.

    With Ceylon no longer engaged, Duperré pulled ahead to engage Astell but found that Stewart had brought his battered Windham between the French frigate and the third East Indiaman. In the growing darkness, Stewart attempted to hail Astell to propose boarding Bellone together, but the remaining officers either ignored or did not hear the suggestion as Astell extinguished all her lights and made all sail to escape the action, receiving a final broadside from Bellone as she pulled away. Alone, Stewart continued to engage the French ships to enable Astell to make her escape. At 19:20 the repaired Minerve returned and took possession of Ceylon, and at 19:45 Stewart surrendered for the second time in less than a year: his ship badly damaged and casualties mounting among his crew and passengers.

    Aftermath.

    Astell was the only HEIC ship to escape, disappearing in the darkness and later reaching a safe port from which despatches were sent to London recounting the action. On the basis of these accounts, the crew and officers of Astell were rewarded with £2,000 from the company directors to be shared among them Casualties in the British convoy had been heavy, Windham losing six killed and 18 wounded, Ceylon six killed and 21 wounded (including Meriton and Oldham) and Astell eight killed and 37 wounded (including Hay). In all, 20 British sailors and soldiers were killed and 76 wounded during the engagement, a figure which was matched by the French losses of 22 killed and 38 wounded: four killed and six wounded on Bellone, 17 killed and 29 wounded on Minerve and one killed and three wounded on Victor. The prizes were very severely damaged and Duperré was forced to take his squadron to an isolated beach on Anjouan until 17 July to effect repairs, before returning to Île de France. Command of Ceylon, renamed Ceylan] was awarded to Lieutenant Vincent Moulac, of Minerve, and that of Windham, to ensign d'Arod.
    Duperré did not meet any British ships on his journey back to the French island, as most of the British blockade squadron were engaged in the aftermath of the Invasion of Île Bonaparte, conducted during July by Commodore Rowley. With the British distracted by this amphibious operation, it was simple for Duperré to reach Grand Port on the south east coast of Île de France in spite of the small blockade squadron under Captain Samuel Pym. This narrow and well-protected anchorage was considered to be the best place to refit the battered French squadron, but in August it came under attack by a British squadron in the Battle of Grand Port. This action was a disaster for the British as their ships became grounded in the unfamiliar shoals of the harbour and four frigates were lost under fire from shore batteries and Duperré's squadron.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Thank you for this little known piece of naval history, Rob.

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    Glad you liked it Dave. I thought it might give the shipmates an idea or two how we can use the Indiamen in battle. I also like it because for once it gives the French a win. Trouble with these lesser known shows is the lack of info on the protagonists captains. I will try to find out a bit about them and their ships to add to the thread.
    Rob.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Intersting & could be a nice scenario for further games.

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    Action of 3 July 1810
    Part of the Napoleonic Wars
    Date 3 July 1810
    Location Comoros Islands, Indian Ocean.
    Result French victory
    Belligerents
    French Empire Honourable East India Company
    Commanders and leaders
    Guy-Victor Duperré Henry Meriton
    Strength
    frigates Bellone, Minerve and brig Victor East Indiamen Ceylon, Windham and Astell
    Casualties and losses
    22 killed, 38 wounded 20 killed, 76 wounded, Ceylon and Windham captured


    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Captain Henry Meriton.




    (1762–1826) was an English sea captain who worked for the East India Company (EIC). Throughout his service he was involved in a famous shipwreck and two naval engagements,at the Action of 4 August 1800, when his ship Exeter had actually forced the surrender of the Médée, and then at the Battle of Pulo Aura in 1804.

    Henry was born in Rotherhithe. He first went to sea as an apprentice sailing on the John and Richard which was involved in the slave trade. In 1783 he began his career with the EIC, starting as Third Mate on the Pigot. He was second mate on the Halsewell[ which foundered off Purbeck on 6 January 1786. He wrote an account of the shipwreck with John Rogers, Third Mate. He was subsequently Chief Mate on the Albion, Lord Macartney and also on the Exeter before becoming the Captain of this last ship.

    He died in Greenwich on 7 August 1826.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Here is a photograph of a panel in St Mary's parish church, Rotherhithe marking Henry Meriton's remains. Part of the inscription reads,"Henry Meriton, d.1827, who ‘served the Honourable East India Company in various appointments with distinguished zeal, activity and fidelity’", and added later, "his brother Walter Allen Meriton, d.1853".

    It is described as,"A tall panel with blocky upper part cut to a pediment shape, with mouldings, acroteria carved with anemone, and a central wreath in relief. At the base, a blocky shelf with half-round supporting brackets incised with simple leaflets or petals. On a shaped white backing. A very characteristic shape of panel from these times, somewhat more substantial than the landscape ones."

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    Guy-Victor Duperré.

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    (20 February 1775, La Rochelle – 2 November 1846, Paris) was a French naval officer and Admiral of France.

    Duperré famously commanded naval forces in the Mauritius Campaign and was victorious in the Battle of Grand Port, where he was wounded. Later he had a command in the Mediterranean and continued to serve during and after the Bourbon Restoration. He commanded the naval elements of the expeditionary force that carried out the Invasion of Algiers in 1830 and went on to become Minister of the Navy three times.

    Youth.

    Duperré was born in La Rochelle to Jean Augustin Duperré, counselor of the king and financer for war, and Marie-Gabrielle Prat-Desprez. He spent a few years with the Oratory of Saint Philip Neri at the Collège de Juilly, before enlisting at 16 on the Henri IV, a French East Indiaman.

    French Revolution.

    In November 1792, Duperré joined the Navy. He served against the Netherlands and Britain aboard the corvette Maire-Guiton, and later aboard the frigate Tortu. In May 1796, he was made an auxiliary ensign aboard the Virginie. In June, he was captured by the British during a night fight. He was exchanged two years later and made a full rank ensign, taking command of the corvette Pélagie.

    In 1804, he was made a lieutenant de vaisseau, and later assistant of the préfet maritime of Boulogne-sur-Mer. In 1806, he served off Brazil aboard the Vétéran, under Jérôme Bonaparte. Back to France, he was promoted to capitaine de frégate on 28 September. In 1808, commanding the frigate Sirène, he led a troop convoy to Martinique; returning to France, he was intercepted by a British blockade off Lorient, and managed to escape by beaching his ship.

    Napoléon made him a capitaine de vaisseau and knight of the Légion d'honneur, before promoting him to Commodore. On 6 December 1810, Duperré was made Baron of the Empire.

    Duperré was sent to the Isle de France (now Mauritius) aboard the frigate Bellone, fighting several British ships in the process, notably the Action of 3 July 1810. On 23 August 1810, he won the Battle of Grand Port, completely destroying a British squadron. He was wounded in this battle. The naval victory made its way on the Arc de Triomphe. In recognition, Duperré was promoted to contre-amiral when he returned to France in September 1811.
    From 1812 to 1814, Duperré commanded the Italian and French naval forces in the Mediterranean and the Adriatic. In 1814, he defended Venice against Austria.

    Restoration.

    Duperré was made Préfet maritime of Toulon during the Hundred Days, and was retired during the Bourbon Restoration. In 1818, he was brought back to active duty. He commanded the squadron which blockaded Cadiz during the war which reinstated Ferdinand VII of Spain on the throne. In October 1823, he was made vice-admiral, grand officier de la Légion d'honneur and Commander of the Order of Saint Louis in 1824. In 1827, he was made Préfet maritime of Brest and inspector of the 5th arrondissement militaire.

    Though Duperré was critical towards the expedition against Algiers, Charles X made him commander of the fleet which ferried troops under Bourmont to depose the Algerian Regency. The fleet of the invasion of Algiers was 103 warships strong, with 572 freighters ferrying 35 000 soldiers, 3 800 horses and 91 heavy guns. In recognition for his role, Duperré was made pair de France on 16 July 1830.

    Duperré died on 2 November 1846 in Saint-Servan.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    A few years ago I ran the Battle of Gran Port at a convention based on the scenario that Cpt Kangaroo ran at HURRICON:

    https://sailsofglory.org/showthread....D-HURRICON-AAR

    I remember using a larger ship to represent the Ceylon with reduced guns and crew. Now I think I'd use the Bonhomme Richard model.

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    Admiral Linois.

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    Born in Brest, Linois joined the French Navy as a volunteer in 1776, when he was 15 years old. He was promoted to lieutenant in 1791 after participating in the American War of Independence. From 1791 to 1793 he was posted to Isle de France (now Mauritius) where he served in the French forces in the Indian Ocean.

    After his return to France in 1794, he was based in Brest. Linois was captured by the Royal Navy at the Action of 7 May 1794 while his ship was protecting a convoy of wheat from the United States. He was exchanged and promoted to captain, taking command of the 74-gun Formidable. The following year he was captured again at the battle of Groix, where he was twice wounded and lost an eye; he was again exchanged. In 1796 he took part in the Expédition d'Irlande as a chief of division, leading a 3-ship of the line and 4-frigate squadron, with his flag on Nestor. Arrived in Bantry Bay, the generals opposed a landing, and the squadron headed back to Brest, taking three prizes on the way.

    On 12 April 1796 he was captain of Unité when HMS Révolutionnaire captured her. Revolutionnaire had no casualties because the French had fired high, aiming for her rigging; the British fired into their quarry with the result that Unité suffered nine men killed and 11 wounded.

    In 1799 Linois was promoted to Rear-Admiral (contre-amiral) and sent to the Mediterranean under Admiral Bruix. As second in command of the squadron under Admiral Ganteaume, he attacked Elba in 1801. Then in command of a small squadron based in Cadiz, he fought a larger British squadron under Sir James Saumarez in the Battle of Algeciras. His squadron prevailed during the first part of the battle, capturing HMS Hannibal, but on the return to Cadiz, two Spanish ships who had joined him were fooled into firing on each other by a British night attack and were lost.

    In 1803 Napoleon Bonaparte appointed him to command the French forces in the Indian Ocean and, flying his flag aboard the 74-gun-ship Marengo, he harried British merchant ships across the ocean and into the China Seas. At the Battle of Pulo Aura in 1804, a squadron of French naval ships commanded by Linois encountered the British China Fleet of lightly armed merchant ships. The British ships outnumbered Linois' forces, manoeuvred as though preparing to defend themselves, and some flew naval ensigns. The tactics of the convoy commodore Nathaniel Dance fooled Linois into believing that the British fleet was defended by naval escorts and he retired without attacking the virtually defenceless British.

    During his squadron's return to France, Linois encountered a large British squadron under Admiral Warren off Cape Verde. In their engagement, known as the Action of 13 March 1806, Linois was wounded and captured again. Napoleon had ended the practice of exchanging officers and Linois remained a prisoner of war until Napoleon fell in 1814. In 1810, while held by the British, Linois was named comte de Linois by Napoleon.

    Following the Bourbon restoration, Louis XVIII named him to be Governor of Guadeloupe but as Linois supported Napoleon during the Hundred Days he was forced to resign after the battle of Waterloo.[citation needed] He was court martialled but acquitted in 1816. However, he was placed in retirement and never served again, although he was appointed as an honorary Vice-Admiral (vice-amiral) in 1825.

    He lived in Versailles, where he died in 1848.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  11. #11
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    Quote Originally Posted by DeRuyter View Post
    A few years ago I ran the Battle of Gran Port at a convention based on the scenario that Cpt Kangaroo ran at HURRICON:

    https://sailsofglory.org/showthread....D-HURRICON-AAR

    I remember using a larger ship to represent the Ceylon with reduced guns and crew. Now I think I'd use the Bonhomme Richard model.
    Funny that Eric.
    Take a look at what arrived for me yesterday.

    https://sailsofglory.org/showthread....69-New-project

    Rob.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Baron Jacques Félix Emmanuel Hamelin.


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    (13 October 1768 – 23 April 1839) was a rear admiral of the French navy and later a Baron. He commanded numerous naval expeditions and battles with the British Navy as well as exploratory voyages in the Indian Ocean and the South Seas.

    Early career.

    Hamelin was born in Honfleur, Calvados, France. At age 17, Hamelin embarked on a trade ship belonging to his uncle as a young marine to learn sailing. In April 1786, he was a crew member of the ship Asie of the merchant marine which was destined for the coast of Angola on a ten-month campaign. He then proceeded to Cherbourg on board the Triton as a helmsman. In July 1788, Hamelin returned to Honfleur, where he embarked as a midshipman on the ship Jeune Mina and campaigns on several other vessels.

    Navy.

    He was conscripted by the French Revolutionary Government for the French Revolutionary Wars and in 1792, quit commercial sailing and joined the Navy. In August 1792 he was a quartermaster aboard the vessel Entreprenant which was a part of a naval division under Rear Admiral Louis-René Levassor de Latouche Tréville. Tréville's division joined together with another squadron of Admiral Truguet and took part in operations against Oneglia, Cagliari, and Nice.
    In August 1793 Hamelin was named midshipman of the frigate Proserpine, with which he took over the Dutch frigate Vigilante and part of the convoy she was escorting.

    He was promoted to lieutenant in August 1795, and on Minerve, took part in the Action of 7 March 1795, in which HMS Berwick was captured.

    He took part in the Action of 7 October 1795, in which Rear-Admiral de Richery's squadron met with a British convoy bound for Smyrna, taking 30 out of 31 merchant ships, and retaking the 74 gun Censeur.

    On 21 November 1796, Hamelin was promoted to capitaine de frégate (commander) and took a commission as first officer of Révolution. He took part in the Irish Rebellion.

    Hamelin subsequently took command of the Fraternité for three months, after which took command of Précieuse, part of a squadron under Admiral Eustache Bruix.

    He then embarked as second-in-command on the Formidable.

    Exploration of the South Seas.

    From 1 October 1800 to 23 June 1803, Hamelin captained the bomb ship Naturaliste, along with Captain Nicolas Baudin on Géographe, on a scientific expedition exploring the South Seas. This voyage was intended as a scientific exploration of New Holland and the charting of the as yet unknown southern coastline. There were no instructions from the French government to claim any land in the name of France. This expedition returned to France the largest collection of plants animals and seeds from New Holland and Timor that Europe had ever seen, including two short legged emus from King Island who lived out their days in Josephine's garden. Baudin did not believe in the imperialistic ideas that prevailed at the time that lands that were already occupied should be claimed by any other nation and he wrote letters to this affect. No aborigine was harmed during the expedition's 2 year visit to the Great South land A party of Hamelin's men discovered a plate, left by Willem de Vlamingh in 1697, which had in turn replaced an earlier plate left by Dirk Hartog in 1616. Hamelin's men initially removed the plate but it was returned on his orders and left intact until a later visit by Louis de Freycinet in 1818. De Freycinet was on Hamelin's 1801 crew.

    On his return to France, Hamelin was promoted to captaine de vaisseau (captain), and oversaw the weaponry of the large fleet intended for the invasion of England.

    Mauritius.

    In July 1806, Hamelin took command of the frigate Vénus from Le Havre. He set sail for Isle de France (now Mauritius), seizing four ships along the way. In March 1809, Vénus entered Port Napoléon (formerly Port-Louis, Isle de France).
    On 26 April, after orders from the general captain of Mauritius to leave, he sailed off, having under his command Vénus, the frigate Manche, the brig Entreprenant, and the schooner Créole.
    He visited Foulpointe on the east coast of Madagascar. Besieged by natives, he moved on the Bay of Bengal, entered Saint George's channel in the Nicobar Islands, seized several British ships, sank a great number of boats sent out by the British, and on 18 November 1809, seized the British settlement of Tappanouti. On the return voyage to Mauritius, he captured three large East India Trading Company ships in the Action of 18 November 1809.

    On his return trip, he seized several more British ships, until he encountered Ceylon on 17–18 September 1810. Ceylon was captured, but the next day a British frigate squadron seized both Ceylon and Vénus.

    Hero's return.

    On returning to France in February 1811 Hamelin was presented to Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, and made a Commandeur de la Légion d'honneur, created a Baron of Empire, raised to the rank of rear-admiral and named commander of a division of the squadron under the orders of Admiral Édouard Thomas Burgues de Missiessy.

    In April 1818 he moved to Toulon as general major of the navy, a post that he occupied until 18 May 1822. In early 1823, he was bestowed the rank of Grand Officer de la Légion d'Honneur.
    In 1832 Baron Hamelin was appointed Inspector General of Marine Crews, and in 1833 he was named Director of Marine Cartography.

    He retired shortly after, and died in Paris.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Admiral Sir Albemarle Bertie, 1st Baronet, KCB.



    (20 January 1755 – 24 February 1824) was a long-serving and at the time controversial officer of the British Royal Navy who saw extensive service in his career, but also courted controversy with several of his actions.
    Bertie won recognition for unsuccessfully defending his ship against superior odds in the American Revolutionary War. He was later criticised however for failing to close with the enemy at the Glorious First of June and later for pulling rank on a subordinate officer just days before the capture of the French island of Mauritius and taking credit for the victory. Despite these controversies, Bertie was rewarded for his service with a baronetcy and the Order of the Bath, retiring in 1813 to his country estate at Donnington, Berkshire.

    American Revolutionary War.

    Albemarle Bertie was born in 1755, the natural son of Peregrine Bertie, 3rd Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, and much of his childhood is undocumented. It is not even clear when he entered the Navy, although he was gazetted lieutenant in December 1777 aged 22, quite a bit older than most of his contemporaries. Within a year of promotion, Bertie had witnessed combat on the repeating frigate Fox at the First Battle of Ushant, a brief and inconclusive action which resulted in a court martial for Admiral Hugh Palliser, a court martial at which Commander Bertie (as he by then was), was called on to give evidence in 1779. The intervening two years had been highly eventful, Bertie spending most of it as a prisoner of war in France after Fox had been taken by the larger French Junon on 11 September 1778.

    Following his exchange and appearance as a witness, Bertie spent two years without a ship, due to the shortage of available positions for young officers during the American Revolutionary War. On 21 March 1782, after a change of government, Bertie was reinstated and made captain of the 24-gun frigate Crocodile stationed in the Channel, serving in her until June. He remained on half-pay throughout the 1780s, marrying Emma Heywood of Maristow House in Devon on 1 July 1783, and having four children: Lyndsey James, Catherine Brownlow, Emma and Louisa Frances. His wife Emma predeceased him, dying in March 1805. He briefly commanded the frigate Nymphe between October and December 1787.

    French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars.

    In 1790 at the Spanish armament, Bertie gained command of the frigate Latona before progressing to captain of a ship of the line, Edgar in 1792, in which he assisted at the capture of the French privateer Le Général Dumourier, and her prize St. Iago, having on board more than two million dollars, besides valuable cargo worth between two and three hundred thousand pounds. The following year he took command of Thunderer in Lord Howe's Channel Fleet. With Thunderer and Howe, Bertie participated in the Atlantic campaign of May 1794 and the culminating Glorious First of June. Howe omitted Bertie from his dispatches of the battle and Bertie was not awarded a commemorative medal like many of the other captains. His failure to close with the French fleet was later cited against him.

    For the next ten years Bertie remained with the Channel Fleet on uneventful blockade duty, serving under Sir John Borlase Warren and commanding Thunderer, Renown, Windsor and Malta on this duty. On 23 April 1804, Bertie was promoted to rear-admiral, climbing the ranks over the next three years until he was senior enough to become admiral in charge of the Cape of Good Hope Station off South Africa, being promoted to vice-admiral on 28 April 1808. He served off South Africa for the next two years, suddenly sailing in late 1810 to take over the operations to invade Mauritius and seize it from the French. Most of the fighting had already been concluded by Admiral William O'Bryen Drury before Bertie's arrival and Drury was furious at Bertie's behaviour, writing several strong letters to the Admiralty in protest.

    Bertie returned to Britain in 1811 and endured a brief political storm over his actions at Mauritius, which had been criticised by his fellow senior officer on the island Lord Minto. Angered, Bertie requested court martial to defend his conduct but was firmly refused by the Admiralty, which did not wish for another scandal. A change of government the following year changed the political situation however and Bertie was returned to favour and presented with a baronetcy on 8 December 1812 as reward for the capture of Mauritius, Drury having died in the meantime.

    Retirement.

    Retiring to his country estate at Donnington in Berkshire, Bertie continued to be promoted post-retirement, becoming a full admiral on 4 June 1814. He was also made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on the restructuring of the orders of knighthood, on 2 January 1815. He died in 1824 after ten years' retirement, and his title was inherited by his only son Sir Lyndsey James Bertie, 2nd Bt., then a lieutenant in the 12th Regiment of Dragoons. Although sources do explicitly state that his son succeeded to the Baronetcy, Lieutenant Bertie appears to have died at Waterloo in July 1815, and is not mentioned in the will.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Baron des Bruslys.

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    Nicolas Ernault of Rignac Baron des Bruslys was born on August 7, 1757, in Brive in Corrèze.

    On September 28, 1774, he enters as a student at the school of the Miners of Verdun.

    On September 25, 1775, at the suppression of the school he achieves a post as supernumerary in the bodyguards of the king (company of Noailles). Belonging to an affluent family, integrated into the society of the Old Regime, the young man, in the turbulent period that then marks France, and driven by ambition, will undergo , a succession of mixed loyalties. This is how his pact with the Montagnards, and with Robespierregave way to his joining Bonaparte, after the 18th Brumaire.

    Entered the artillery, his beginnings as an officer were tumultuous. He fought on several different battlefields, both in Europe and in Turkey.

    On January 4, 1802, Ernault des Bruslys was promoted to the rank of general and embarked at Rochefort, bound for the Isle of France. During his stay he married the widow of a rich Reunionese, Mrs. Panon du Hazier. She brought him five children, her very comfortable fortune and a remarkable position.

    .On January 1, 1806, Nicolas Ernautl de Rignac took possession of his new post, the Governor General Decaen has just named him commander of the island of Reunion.

    However, on August 15, 1806, the English captured the harbor of Saint-Denis, and the ship Turlurette.

    The island of Reunion, renamed the isle de Bonaparte on August 16th, 1806, as Reunion governor Nicolas Ernautl de Rignac was anxious to give the distant colony a testimony of loyalty to the Emperor.

    On December 12th, 1806, the island Bonaparte (Reunion) suffered a flood, everything was carried away, and this disaster was referred to as the "avalasse", it ended on January 6th, 1807. On February 19, 1807, another storm of unheard-of violence broke out and many ships were wrecked. On February 27, General Ernault de Rignac des Bruslys sent a letter to Decaen in which he tried to describe to the governor general the extent of the disaster:

    "A hurricane of the most violence has just taken its toll on this island as well as the Merchant Navy, the first of the month, 1st Ventose, (February 19th) at eight o'clock in the evening in the district of Saint-Pierre and has traveled successively around the island until noon the next day The most abused communes are those of Saint-Pierre, Saint-Leu, Saint-Gilles, Saint-Benoît, Sainte-Rose The other communes were also affected but the part which carries the sea, being in plain did not give as much hold to the gust of wind ... It is not a resident who did not have any damage, either in the buildings, or in the There are some who are forever unable to repair their losses, there are others who have had the misfortune to have seen their slaves perish. " And as far as the Merchant Navy is concerned, out of the twelve ships that were in the runways, two were able to escape to the sea and returned, five flung themselves by force on the coast; two died and the others gave no news."

    On March 14, 1807, a cyclone completes the devastation of what miraculously escaped the previous cataclysms.In the report that the general police officer Bédier sends to the sub-prefect Marchant are detailed the damage suffered by the colony.

    " Saint-Denis is, after Saint-Pierre, the second city to feel the effects of the hurricane. In the chief town of the ships and canoes were lost. Moreover if the "dependent campaigns of the district of Saint-Denis" were little reached by the first "gust of wind", it is not the same for the second; "They have been ravaged, the inhabitants can only reasonably expect one-third corn and half coffee, and clove trees have been almost destroyed in the eastern part of the island."In Sainte-Marie, three ships were stranded but the harvests were relatively spared. On the other hand "on the edge of the sea which extends the district of Saint-André to a place called Bois-Rouge, two ships were thrown in the full ...". The cargoes of these two ships have been largely lost. In Saint-Benoît, "the countryside has been totally ravaged ... All the huts of the blacks and stables of the houses have been generally removed.Nine blacks were killed or drowned ... The gale was terrible in this part" . On his side Sainte-Rose "was as ill-treated" as Saint-Benoît. As a result, many cities are asking for help and food from the government. The scarcity threatens and it is urgent to parry in the hurry. The consequences are appalling. Famine settles. For many months, we will only take care of lifting the corpses."

    The beginning of the Govenorship of Nicolas Ernault de Rignac is thus not very auspicious, the famine sets in, and the English began a blockade of the island.

    Without communication, more trade, more supplies, and more reinforcements the matters were grave. Gradually, the blockade tightened, and an imposing fleet of British frigates and corvettes surrounded the coast, preventing any supply or communications between the two sister islands which then became extremely difficult.

    In December 1808, the English came to destroy an Arab ship which traded in Sainte-Rose and they fired on the batteries of the small village. At the beginning of the following year, the English captured no fewer than ten French ships.On August 4th, 1809, Rodrigues Island fell. It could not defend itself, with its few tens of inhabitants, but with it, the English benefited from a natural harbor, a base of attack within Mascarene. The consequences were not long in coming, the British attacking again at Sainte-Rose.

    A report by the Governor of Brulys tells us what transpired.

    " The defenses of the island were weak, some batteries spread on the coast, few men, 3,000 or 4,000 soldiers and mobilizable units of the National Guard, civil more or less trained. The lookouts signaled the whereabouts of the enemy frigates, the frigate, The Nereid and the corvette, The Sapphire, commanded by a young officer Corbett. On August 8, 1809, they were in front of Sainte-Rose. On the 16th of the same month, they reappear, approaching this time much more, despite a warning shot, they anchor in the harbor and put boats in the sea. In front thirteen men of the line, no National Guard, we must give up Sainte-Rose to the English, these destroy the batteries in part, because they have very urgent concerns. The crew of La Nereide is suffering from scurvy, so the commander takes care of finding meat and fruit first. He takes on board the city commander, sick, hostage, committing the inhabitants to provide food. In case of refusal, he will bomb Sainte-Rose. The enemy remains at anchor. On the 17th, 110 men of the guards of St. Benedict arrived to the aid of St. Rose, but, without orders, little encouraged by the inhabitants who fear reprisals, they leave. On August 18, 1809, the enemy is still at anchor, the guard of Saint-Benoît commanded this time by Hubert Delisle reappears. The enemy fires but the guard holds and takes position on the ramparts. The English then send a parliamentarian to discuss the price of food. Delisle refuses to discuss with the enemy. The English sail towards Saint-Benoît and try, without success, to destroy the lookout of Petit Saint-Pierre. The enemy returned to Sainte-Rose on August 22nd, and again obliged the defenders to withdraw from the port. He wanted to disembark, but the guard pushed him away. A few days later the English withdrew altogether.In Ile de France, Governor Decaen is concerned about these attacks. He sends reinforcements; he sends orders mainly to Bruslys. He orders her to keep the entire coast at all costs and to prevent all landings.July 1809, the frigate Carolina returns from her expedition, two of her catches, the ships Europe and Streatham. The loading of the catch is of considerable value, which Governor Decaen expects to make the most of. He ordered the commander Ernault des Bruslys to defend it. It is in this context that the British forces established themselves in front of St. Paul's Bay. On September 20, 1809, three English ships coming from the Isle of France joined two ships a few miles from our island. In the evening, at Saint-Paul, the inhabitants think they see enemy buildings approaching the city. The soldiers are preparing for the attack, when the ships disappear behind the point of Les Galets. While the combat posts are abandoned, at nightfall, the occupants of the guard post located above the plain Chabrier see arise Englishmen. Too late to give the alert. They are neutralized. The English can disembark in peace.An hour and a half later, the sentinels of the bridge are silently under control. The invaders are divided into two sections: one passes by the seaside and the other takes the road and crosses the bridge. The enemy column thus crosses the pond. Then, the two sections meet at the battery of the mouth, located on the left bank. The guard is neutralized in no time. The French are forced to surrender without being able to defend themselves."

    A little later, as the Sun begins to rise, the battery of the center is in turn taken by the British. Warned of the English invasion and the situation at St. Paul, General Ernault des Bruslys now marches on the city, where he arrived during the night of September 21st, 1809 at the head of a regiment of 600 men. Not daring to occupy the city ​​for fear of causing its bombardment by the English, Bruslys seeks to parley before turning back, leaving behind 150 men and charging Captain Saint-Mihiel to hold the enemy, while allowing him time to negotiate.

    On September 23, 1809, Captain Saint-Mihiel, believing himself to be in an impossible situation, signed a surrender agreement with the English and submitted it for ratification to Bruslys. A council of war was then summoned to be held at the government hotel on the 24th September, during which the commander of the Soleille disagreed vehemently with Bruslys, holding the threat of the Decree of the Convention of 14th Pluviose II over him, and rejected the capitulation. Torn between contrary opinions, and unable to prevent the decision, on September 25th, 1809, the commander retired to his apartments, wrote his will, and tried to end his life. The first attempt is with black powder, which burns him atrociously. His second attempt, where the carotid artery is severed proves fatal to him.

    Translated from a French document, any errors are mine.

    Bligh.
    Last edited by Bligh; 03-12-2019 at 15:29.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Pierre-François-Henri-Étienne Bouvet de Maisonneuve.


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    (Saint-Benoît, Réunion, 28 December 1775 Saint-Servan, 18 June 1860) was a French Navy officer and privateer.

    Born to a Navy captain, Bouvet started sailing at the age of 11, He served under his father on various ships between France and the Indies. He was taken prisoner by the British during their occupation of Toulon.

    Released, Bouvet served on the frigate Amazone in Linois's squadron, which raided commerce in the Indies. After Amazone was wrecked at Cape of Good Hope, he attempted to return to Mauritius and inform the governor, but was captured en route by a British frigate.

    Released on parole, Bouvet designed a patamar or felucca of Indian pattern that he named Entreprenant). After he was exchanged, he cruised off the Malabar Coast undetected amongst indigenous shipping. Appointed to a 16-gun brig also named Entreprenant, Bouvet sailed to Manila and rescued the crew of Mouche n° 6 from detention.

    Embarked in Duperré's squadron, Bouvet was given command of the prize Minerve, on which he took part in a battle against three largs East Indiamen, of which the squadron captured two. Returned to Mauritius, the squadron met four British frigates, which it defeated in the Battle of Grand Port. Duperré having been wounded, Bouvet commanded the French forces for the second half of the battle.
    Returned to France after the fall of Mauritius, Bouvet was given command of a two-frigate squadron, with his flag on Aréthuse. His other frigate was wrecked in a storm, and soon after, Aréthuse battled HMS Amelia in a bloody action that resulted in a stale-mate. Bouvet never fought again, and devoted his late life to politics and writing.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Vincent-Marie Moulac.






    (Lorient, 22 March 1778 - Callao, 5 April 1836.) was a French naval officer and privateer.

    Career.

    Moulac volunteered as a boy in 1790, aged 12, and sailed with merchantmen to Ile de France. He then served on the 74-gun Thémistocle. In 1793, promoted to helmsman, he served on Orion.

    In 1794, he was promoted to midshipman and appointed to the frigate Bellone. In May 1796, he served on the privateer Morgant, which was captured by the British in June. Moulac was detained for two years before being released. By the Peace of Lunéville in 1801, he was serving on the frigate Uranie, but as he was only an auxiliary officer, he could not maintain his appointment and had to sail to commerce.

    He later served as a first lieutenant on the privateer Frères Unis, only to be captured again on 27 April 1804.

    A few months later, he was recruited by Robert Surcouf to serve as first officer on his privateer Caroline, under Nicolas Surcouf.

    In 1805, Moulac was promoted to Ensign in the Navy. He served as first officer on Surcouf's privateer Revenant, under Captain Joseph Potier, and took part in the capture of the Portuguese Conceçáo-de-Santo-Antonio. and appointed to the Iéna. On 8 October 1808, Iéna as captured off the Sandheads of Bengal river, by the 44-gun HMS Modeste, under Captain George Elliot, after a 9-hour chase and a 2hour and a half fight.

    Released, he was appointed second officer on Minerve, under Pierre Bouvet. He took part in the Battle of Grand Port, where he captained the Indiaman Ceylon, previously captured by the French and was twice wounded. He was again taken prisoner at the Invasion of Île de France in December 1810.

    Release in November 1811 and promoted to Lieutenant, he was appointed to Clorinde, under Commander René Joseph Marie Denis-Lagarde, and was once again captured when Clorinde, after fighting a bitted nut indicisive battle against HMS Eurotas, was captured in a disabled state by HMS Dryad and Achates.

    In January 1817, Moulac was given command of the 22-gun corvette Bayardère for a hydrography mission off Africa. In January 1817, he took part in slave trading repression, commanding the brig Écureuil off Senegal.

    In 1822, he was promoted to Commander, and appointed as first officer on the Flore.
    In 1825, he took command of the fluyt Durance, transporting Egyptian antiques,
    and the corvette Diligente in 1828.
    Promoted to Captain, he was given command of the hospital frigate Armide. He was then appointed to captain the 80-gun Algésiras, taking part in the Battle of the Tagus where he was the one to advise attempting to force the forts and sail upstream to Lisbon.

    In 1833, he was appointed to the frigate Melpomène, and the next year, to Flore.

    He died of unknown causes on 5 April 1836 in Callao harbour.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Admiral Sir Josias Rowley, 1st Baronet, GCB, GCMG

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    (1765 – 10 January 1842), known as "The Sweeper of the Seas", was an Anglo-Irish naval officer who commanded the campaign that captured the French Indian Ocean islands of Réunion and Mauritius in 1810.

    Birth and family.



    Rowley was born in 1765 the second son of Clotworthy Rowley and Letitia (née Campbell), of Mountcampbell, Drumsna, County Leitrim, in the West of Ireland. His father was Barrister and MP for Downpatrick in the Irish Parliament. His paternal grandfather was Admiral of the Fleet Sir William Rowley, KCB.

    Naval career.


    He joined the Royal Navy in 1778, age 13, in HMS Suffolk in the West Indies.

    Promoted to post captain in 1795, age 30, he commanded HMS Braave (40 guns) at the Cape of Good Hope and then HMS Impérieuse (38 guns) in the East Indies. He also commanded HMS Raisonnable (64 guns) and took part in the Battle of Cape Finisterre in 1805. In 1798 he became the Member of the Irish House of Commons for Downpatrick.
    In 1808 he became commander-in-chief, Cape of Good Hope Station. In 1809, as commodore of a small squadron off Mauritius, working with the commander of the East India Company troops at Rodrigues, he successfully raided the island of Réunion.

    Raid on Saint-Paul.



    In March 1810 he moved into HMS Boadicea (38 guns) and transported a larger landing party which arrived on Réunion and captured the island. Meanwhile, a force led by Captain Samuel Pym RN was being out-flanked by French frigates attacking Grand Port, Mauritius. HMS Africaine was captured by the French frigates Iphigénie and Astrée in the engagement. Rowley then re-captured Africaine the same day. Vice-Admiral Albemarle Bertie arrived on 29 November and took the surrender of Mauritius on 3 December 1810.



    Rowley was then given command of HMS America (74 guns) in the Mediterranean. He was created a baronet in December 1813, promoted rear-admiral in 1814 and appointed KCB in 1815.



    In the summer of 1815, age 50, with his flagship Impregnable (98 guns), under Lord Exmouth he sailed once more to the Mediterranean. In 1818 he was appointed commander-in-chief on the Cork Station. In 1821 he became MP for Kinsale, County Cork. Promoted to vice-admiral in 1825, he was made commander-in-chief, Mediterranean Fleet in 1833.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    Sir Samuel Pym. KCB

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    (1778–1855) was a British admiral, brother of Sir William Pym.
    In June 1788, Pym joined the Royal Navy as captain's servant of the frigate Eurydice. He was promoted to lieutenant of the sloop Martin, under Captain William Grenville Lobb, and served under Lobb aboard the Babet and the Aimable.

    From November 1798, Pym served aboard the Ethalion (36), taking part in the capture of the Spanish Thetis and Santa-Brigida in 1799. The Ethalion was wrecked on the Penmarks on Christmas Day.

    From April 1804, Pym served aboard the Mars, and from June on the 74-gun Atlas, under the overall command of Sir John Thomas Duckworth. Pym was decorated after the Battle of San Domingo, on 6 February 1806.

    In October 1808, Pym took command of the 36-gun frigate Sirius, in the squadron of Commodore Rowley.

    In 1810, Pym was sent to the Isle de France (now Mauritius) to lead a squadron consisting of the frigates Sirius, Iphigenia, Nereide, and the brig Staunch. On 13 August, the squadron captured the Île de la Passe which commanded the entrance of Grand Port, and moved to blockade Port Louis. On 21 August, the squadron seized the East Indiaman Wyndham, previously captured by the French, and learnt that a French frigate squadron had arrived at Grand Port.

    The British squadron attempted to attack the French squadron at anchor and moved into the harbour. Entering it, the Sirius and Magicienne ran aground and became unmanoeuverable. The Nereide struck her colours before the French frigates, and the Sirius and Magicienne were scuttled by fire. The last ship of the squadron, the Iphigenia, surrendered two days later. Pym, then at the Île de la Passe, was taken prisoner along with the whole garrison. The Battle of Grand Port became the only defeat of a British squadron against Napoleonic France. Pym was released in December when Sir Albemarle Bertie recaptured the Île de la Passe. He was court-martialled and found innocent of the defeat.

    In February 1812, Pym was in command of the 74-gun ship Hannibal, off Cherbourg, in May of the Niemen, and in 1830 of HMS Kent.

    Pym was made a rear-admiral in 1837. He served as admiral-superintendent at Devonport from 1841 to 1846, and in the autumn of 1845 commanded the experimental squadron in the Channel. He was promoted to vice-admiral in 1847 and to full admiral in 1851.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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    French frigate Bellone (1807)
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    Bellone at Grand Port.
    .
    History.
    France.
    Name: Bellone
    Namesake: Bellona
    Ordered: 14 January 1803
    Builder: Saint Servan (near Saint Malo; Ethéart company), plans by Sané
    Laid down: March 1806
    Launched: 18 April 1807
    Commissioned: 8 May 1809
    Captured: 4 December 1810
    United Kingdom.
    Name: Junon
    Acquired: 4 December 1810 by capture
    Out of service: 1817

    General characteristics.
    Class and type: Consolante-class frigate
    Displacement: 1320 tonnes
    Tons burthen: 1091​8394 (bm)
    Length: 48.75 metres (159.9 ft)
    Beam: 12.2 metres (40 ft)
    Draught: 5.9 metres (19 ft)
    Propulsion: Sail
    Armament:
    Armour: Timber

    Bellone
    was a 44-gun Consolante-class frigate of the French Navy.

    French service.

    Bellone, under the command of Guy-Victor Duperré, departed Saint-Malo on 18 January 1809, bound for the Indian Ocean. She sailed from La Réunion for a combat patrol in August. On 2 November she captured HMS Victor. Twenty days later, she captured the 48-gun Portuguese Minerva after a 2-hour battle. Bellone sailed back to La Réunion with her prize, arriving on 2 January 1810.

    In April 1810, the squadron comprising Bellone, Minerve and Victor departed for another patrol, during which they fought the Action of 3 July 1810 and the Battle of Grand Port.

    Bellone was surrendered to the British when Île de France fell, on 4 December 1810.

    British service.

    Bellone was recommissioned in the Royal Navy as HMS Junon.

    In June 1812, Junon escorted a convoy from Portsmouth to India.

    On 8 February 1813, nine boats and 200 men of the squadron of which Junon was part captured the letter of marque schooner Lottery. Lottery was of 210 tons burthen (bm), copper-bottomed and fastened, and carried six 12-pounder carronades, though she was pierced for 16 cannon. Her crew put up a strong defense with the result that the British cutting out party suffered six men wounded, half severely or dangerously, one of whom died later; Junon herself suffered two men wounded. The Americans suffered 19 men wounded, including their captain, John Southcomb, before they struck. Southcomb died of his wounds and his body was taken ashore.
    Lottery had been carrying a cargo of coffee, sugar and lumber from Baltimore to Bordeaux.
    A week later Lottery convoyed several prizes to Bermuda. The Royal Navy took Lottery into service as HMS Canso.
    In June, Bellone's boats raided the James River, and she sustained attack by US gunboats.
    On 3 April 1814, as she sailed with HMS Tenedos, she encountered the USS Constitution, which fled at all sail, dropping drinking water and food overboard, and eventually making it to Marblehead harbour.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  20. #20
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    Rob this is an amazing piece of research, a great post. Have you re-fought the action and posted a game report?
    My apologies if this is a thread that shouldn't be interrupted with comments.

  21. #21
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    No worries John.
    If I want continuity of a thread I just close it until I finish. If it's open just use it as normal.
    Not played it yet, but it is in the pipeline.
    I will be adding other ships of interest over the next few days building work allowing.
    Today I has been mainly stripping cupboards out of the kitchen. Saturday the plumbers arrive.
    Rob.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  22. #22
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    Minerva.
    Name:  1280px-Grand_Port_mg6975.jpg
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    Minerve (centre) at the Battle of Grand Port.


    History
    Portugal
    Name: Nossa Senhora da Vitória, a Minerva; Minerva
    Namesake: Minerva
    Builder: Lisbon
    Laid down: 1787
    Launched: 19 July 1788
    Captured: 23 November 1809
    France
    Name: Minerve
    Acquired: 22 November 1809
    Captured: 3 December 1810 by the Royal Navy
    Status: Broken up
    General characteristics
    Tons burthen: 1400 tons
    Length: 47.78 m (total)
    Beam: 11.58 m
    Complement: 349 men
    Armament: 48 guns, 18-pounder main battery
    Minerve was the 48-gun Portuguese Navy frigate Nossa Senhora da Vitória, a Minerva, launched in 1788. The French captured her in November 1809 off India and took her into service as Minerve. The British captured her shortly thereafter and had her broken up.


    Career.



    N.a S.a da Vitória, a Minerva spent the first almost two decades of her career guarding Portuguese waters. In 1807 she was part of the flotilla involved in the transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil.
    In November 1809 Minerva sailed to Brazil, under Captain Pinto.



    On 22 November 1809 she encountered the French frigate Bellone, under Captain Duperré. The distance between the two ships being too great for Duperré to catch them before nightfall, he shadowed Minerva until the next morning. On 23, at 9:00, Bellone had taken a favourable position behind Minerva, at pistol range. Understanding the advantage that this configuration gave to Bellone, Pinto turned, but the French followed and fired a raking broadside. Pinto then turned the other way, only to receive another broadside. Eventually, Minerva ran downwind, but Bellone followed and maintained fire, until Minerva surrendered. The fight had lasted for one hour and forty-five minutes.



    Minerve
    The French commissioned Minerva as Minerve, and appointed Pierre Bouvet as her captain. Duperré, hindered by the damage Bellone had sustained, the reduction and dispersion of his crew over his prizes, and the 500 prisoners he had aboard, decided to return to Île de France, where he arrived on 2 January 1810, accompanied by Manche, which they had met en route.
    At Île de France the French repaired Minerve and replaced her carronades with 18-pounder short guns.



    Minerve and Manche then sailed together, capturing the East Indiamen Windham and Ceylon in the Action of 3 July 1810. On their return to Île de France, the squadron fought in the Battle of Grand Port.



    Minerve was surrendered to the British after the Invasion of Île de France in December 1810, and was broken up shortly thereafter.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  23. #23
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    Victor.


    Name:  800px-Grand_Port_mg6978.jpg
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    Detail of Battle of Grand Port: From left to right: French frigate Minerve, Victor (background) and Ceylon Oil on canvas

    History
    France
    Name: Revenant
    Namesake: Revenant (French: "ghost")
    Builder: Saint-Malo
    Launched: 1807
    Acquired: July 1808 by French Navy
    Renamed: Iéna September 1808
    Fate: Captured on 8 October 1808
    United Kingdom
    Name: Victor
    Acquired: 8 October 1808
    Captured: 2 November 1809
    France
    Name: Victor
    Acquired: 2 November 1809 by capture
    Captured: 3 December 1810
    Fate: Broken up
    General characteristics
    Type: Corvette
    Displacement: 300 tons (French)
    Tons burthen: c.400
    Length: 36 meters
    Beam: 9 meters
    Sail plan: Full-rigged ship
    Speed: up to 12 knots
    Armament: ·French service: 14 × 32-pounder carronades + 6 × 8-pounder long guns
    ·British service: 16 × 32-pounder carronades + 2 × 6-pounder bow chaser long guns


    Revenant was a 20-gun privateer corvette, launched in 1807, and designed by Robert Surcouf for commerce raiding. The French Navy later requisitioned her and renamed her Iéna, after Napoleon's then-recent victory. The British captured her and she served in the Royal Navy as HMS Victor. The French Navy recaptured her in 1809, and she served for a year under her original name. The British again captured her when they captured Isle de France (now Mauritius) in December 1810. They did not restore her to service and she was subsequently broken up.
    Career.
    Her coppered hull allowed her to sail at up to 12 knots. Her cost was of 277,761 francs-or. One of hers owners was the banker Jacques Récamier.

    Indian ocean cruises (1807 - 1808)

    In February 1807, Surcouf enlisted Potier as first officer on his new privateer Revenant. Revenant then departed from Saint-Malo on 2 March, and sailed for Isle de France. Revenant arrived there on 10 June, along with several prizes she had taken during her journey.] She cruised the Bay of Bengal from September to 31 January 1808 under Surcouf, capturing the rice ships Trafalgar, Mangles, Admiral Alpin, Susannah Hunter, Success, Fortune, New Endeavour, Colonel Macauley, William Burroughs, Oriente and Jean Labdam. Trafalgar, of about 800 tos (bm), was a copper-sheathed three-master, carrying 10,000 sacks of rice from Bengal. Maingless (Mangles) was also a copper-sheathed three-master, in this case carrying 8,000 sacks of rice from Bengal, but also books, mirrors, and furniture. Lastly, Suzanne, of 400 tons (bm), copper-sheathed three-master, was carrying rice and sailcloth. They had been captured on 11, 18, and 25 November, and arrived at Port-Louis on 2 and 16 December.

    After Revenant returned to Port-Louis from her first campaign Surcouf gave Potier command of the ship on 2 April.
    In late April, as Revenant was completing her preparations and plotting her route, a prize taken by the privateer Adèle gave news of the new war between France and Portugal; Adèle also brought intelligence about the Conceçáo-de-Santo-Antonio, a 64-gun ship of the line armed en flûte, which was in Goa preparatory to sailing for Rio de Janeiro and Lisbon. Surcouf sent Portier to intercept, and Revenant departed Port-Louis on 30 April. She arrived in her patrol zone on 17 May and sighted her prey on the 24th. Revenant captured Conceçáo-de-Santo-Antonio after a one-hour battle. Potier gave Conceçáo a prize crew under First Lieutenant Fonroc, and returned to Mauritius one month later with his prize.

    Surcouf then planned to send Revenant back to France en aventurier with colonial goods.

    French naval service.

    General Charles Decaen, governor of Isle de France, requisitioned Revenant on 4 July. The government renamed her Iéna, and gave command of her to Lieutenant Nicolas Morice, with Lieutenant de vaisseau Albin Roussin as second officer. Surcouf had an altercation with Decaen but had to accept the requisitioning of his ship. Surcouf eventually purchased Sémillante, which he renamed Charles, to return to France with his goods.

    Capture by the Royal Navy.

    Iéna set sail to cruise the Persian Gulf and Bay of Bengal. On 8 October 1808, off the Sandheads near the mouth of the Ganges river, she was chased by the 44-gun HMS Modeste, under Captain George Elliot, which caught the Iéna after 9 hours. A night battle followed at musket range; after two and a half hours, Iéna was crippled, dismasted and leaking water, and struck her colours. Iéna had no casualties, while Modeste had her master killed and a seaman wounded. The Royal Navy commissioned Iéna as the 18-gun ship sloop HMS Victor, initially under Commander Thomas Grout and subsequently under Captain Edward Stopford.[1]
    On 2 May 1809, under Stopford's command, she departed from the Sandheads with a convoy of five Indiamen and several smaller vessels. On 24 May a storm split the convoy and Victor and the small ships separately lost touch with the Indiamen. Two of the Indiamen, Monarch and Earl Spencer, deviated to Penang with Earl Spencer accompanying Monarch, which had developed a bad leak and needed to reach a port to repair. The three remaining Indiamen, Streatham, Europe, and Lord Keith continued on their way while hoping to meet up with Victor. They did not and the French frigate Caroline captured Streatham and Europe in the action of 31 May 1809; Lord Keith escaped.

    Recapture by the French Navy.

    On 2 November 1809, Victor, still under Stopford's command, encountered the 44-gun frigate Bellone, under Guy-Victor Duperré; Victor struck after a long chase and a brief but spirited resistance that cost her two men wounded.[17] Bellone took her to Isle de France, where she was repaired and recommissioned as Victor in the French Navy, under Lieutenant Nicolas Morice.
    On 21 February, she sailed for a cruise in the Indian Ocean and the Mozambique Channel in a squadron comprised Bellone and Minerve] under Pierre Bouvet. There, she took part in the Action of 3 July 1810, contributing to the capture of the East Indiamen Windham and Ceylon.

    Upon their return to Île de France, the French squadron encountered a British frigate squadron attempting to seize the island. In the ensuing Battle of Grand Port, Revenant was used as a support ship, behind the French line of battle, as her armament was weaker than that of the more powerful frigates.
    On 17–18 September 1810, along with Vénus, she captured the 40-gun HMS Ceylon. Vénus and Ceylon were damaged in the battle, and the next day a British squadron composed of HMS Boadicea, HMS Otter, and the brig HMS Staunch captured Vénus and Ceylon; Revenant managed to escape.

    Fate.

    The British again captured Revenant when Isle de France fell on 3 December 1810. She was not restored to service but instead was broken up.
    Last edited by Bligh; 03-22-2019 at 12:37.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  24. #24
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    Médée.


    History
    France
    Name: Médée
    Namesake: Medea
    Builder: Saint-Malo
    Laid down: January 1778
    Launched: 20 September 1778
    In service: February 1779
    Captured: 4 August 1800
    United Kingdom
    Name: Medee
    Acquired: 4 August 1800 by capture
    Fate:
    • Hulk in 1802
    • Broken up 1805
    General characteristics
    Class and type: Iphigénie-class frigate
    Displacement: 1,150 tons (French)
    Tons burthen: 620 (French; "of load")
    Length: 44.2 m (145 ft)
    Beam: 11.2 m (37 ft)
    Draught: 4.9 m (16 ft)
    Sail plan: Full-rigged ship
    Armament: 28 × 18-pounder long guns + 4 × 6-pounder long guns



    Médée
    was an Iphigénie-class 32-gun frigate of the French Navy. The British captured her in 1800 and took her into service as HMS Medee, but never commissioned her into the Royal Navy, instead using her as a prison ship. ..

    Career.

    She took part in the Battle of Tory Island.

    She was part of a squadron of three frigates, Concorde under Commodore Jean-François Landolphe, Médée under Captain Jean-Daniel Coudin and Franchise under Captain Pierre Jurien, with Landolphe as the overall commander, that left Rochefort on 6 March 1799. Eluding the British blockade off Rochefort, the squadron sailed southwards until it reached the coast of West Africa. There Landolphe's ships began an extended commerce raiding operation, inflicting severe damage on the West African trade for the rest of the year. During this time, the squadron captured the Portuguese island of Prince (Príncipe).

    Eventually the strain of serving in tropical waters told on the ships and all three were forced to undergo an extensive refit in the nearest available allied shipyards, which were located in the Spanish-held River Plate in South America. At Montevideo the squadron assisted the French prisoners that had captured and taken into that port the convict transport Lady Shore that was carrying them to Australia.

    Repairs continued for six months, until Landolphe considered the squadron once again ready to sail in the early summer of 1800. The squadron almost immediately captured off the coast of Brazil the American schooner Espérance (Hope), which they used as an aviso and sent to Cayenne with a prize crew under the command of enseigne de vaisseau Hamon. (At the time, France and the United States had been engaged for two years in the Quasi War.)

    Fate.

    The East Indiamen Exeter and Bombay Castle, supported by the fourth rate HMS Belliqueux, captured Médée off Rio de Janeiro at the Action of 4 August 1800. The British sailed her to a port in Britain. She was never commissioned but served in 1802 as a prison hulk. She was sold in 1805.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  25. #25
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    Ceylon.


    Name:  1280px-Grand_Port_mg6973.jpg
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    Ceylon (right), renamed Ceylan, at the Battle of Grand Port
    History
    Great Britain
    Name: Ceylon
    Owner:
    Operator: East India Company
    Route: England-India
    Builder: Pitcher, Northfleet
    Laid down: 1802
    Launched: April 1803
    Fate: Captured on 3 July 1810
    France
    Name: Ceylan[
    Acquired: July 1810 by capture
    Captured: December 1810
    Great Britain
    Name: Ceylon
    Owner: Kennard Smith
    Operator: East India Company, then new owners
    Route: England-India
    Acquired: December 1810 by recapture
    Fate: Sold 1815
    General characteristics
    Type: East Indiaman
    Tons burthen: 818​ or 843, or 867
    Length:
    • 148 ft 8 12 in (45.3 m) (overall)
    • 116 ft 0 in (35.4 m) (keel)
    Beam: 36 ft 5 in (11.1 m)
    Depth of hold: 14 ft 9 in (4.5 m)
    Propulsion: sail
    Crew:
    • 1803: 90
    • 1810:110
    Armament:
    • Pierced for 34 guns
    • 1803: 26 × 18-pounder guns]
    • 1810: 20 × 18-pounder guns + 6 × 18-pounder carronades
    • 1815: 20 × 18-pounder carronades


    Ceylon was an East Indiaman launched in 1803. She performed four voyages for the British East India Company (EIC). On her fourth voyage the French captured her in the Action of 3 July 1810; she then took part in the Battle of Grand Port. The British recaptured her at the invasion of Île de France (now Mauritius). She completed her fourth voyage and her owners then sold her. She became a transport until her owners sold her in 1815 to new foreign owners.


    Career.

    EIC Voyage1 (1803-04)

    Captain Thomas Hudson left The Downs on 27 April 1803, bound for Bombay, Bengal, and Madras. He sailed under a letter of marque issued on 27 June 1803, i.e., after he had left.

    Ceylon reached Bombay on 24 August, Tellicherry on 27 September, and Anjengo on 5 October, before arriving at Diamond Harbour on 18 November. Homeward bound, she was at Saugor on 24 December, Vizagapatam on 27 January 1804, Madras on 21 February, and St Helena on 28 June.

    Ceylon travelled from St Helena in convoy with the East Indiamen City of London, Prince of Wales, Calcutta, and Wyndham, two vessels from the South Seas, Lively and Vulture, and Rolla, which had transported convicts to New South Wales. Their escort was HMS Courageaux. On the way the convoy ran into severe weather with the result that Prince of Wales foundered with the loss of all on board.

    Ceylon arrived at Northfleet on 15 October.

    EIC Voyage 2 (1805-06)]

    Captain Thomas Hudson left Portsmouth on 8 March 1805, again bound for Madras, Bengal and Bombay.Ceylon arrived at Madras on 17 July, and reached Diamond Harbour on 10 August. Homeward bound, she was at Saugor on 7 November, Colombo on 20 December, Bombay on 19 January 1806, Tellicherry on 3 March, Quilon on 5 March, and Anjengo on 9 March. She reached St Helena on 14 May and arrived at Long reach on 22 July.

    EIC Voyage 3 (1807-09]

    Captain Thomas Hudson left Portsmouth on 4 March 1807, bound for Madras, Bengal, and Penang. Ceylon reached Madras on 9 September and Diamond Harbour on 3 October. She was at Saugor on 22 November and arrived at Penang on 15 December. She was again at Saugor on 8 February 1808, and at Kidderpore on 30 March. She was at Saugor again on 11 May, but now homeward bound, she reached Madras on 25 July.
    In November Ceylon was in convoy with some eight other Indiamen when she got caught in a hurricane. On this voyage, she had lost 46 men of the 110 she had set out with: 41 pressed by various ships of the Royal Navy, six dead of disease, six deserted, two drowned in Diamond Harbour, and one who had joined the Army. Hudson, who by this time knew he was dying of "Bengal Fever", had made up his numbers with lascars, and some Danes, however the replacements were of a lower quality than the men lost, especially those the Navy had pressed. On 21 November Ceylon was on her beam ends, almost capsizing; fortunately the weather temporarily moderated and she righted herself. As the weather worsened again, the foretopmast broke, but could not be cleared. Ceylon started to take on water and the pumps could not keep up. When Hudson went below, he found that the lascars and Danes were paralyzed by fear or fatalism and would not man the pumps. The men passengers, Army officers and invalided soldiers, manned the pumps while the functioning crew members threw guns overboard.

    Towards 6p.m. on 23 November the weather moderated and Ceylon's pumps were able to start reducing the water in the ship. At some point that evening one of the passengers, the wife of an army officer, gave birth. As Ceylon limped towards Cape Town a fever passed through the vessel killing a baby born on 11 November, five soldiers, and three crewmen.

    Ceylon reached the Cape on 19 January 1809. There two of her passengers married. She arrived at St Helena on 7 March. On 17 March, a few days after leaving St Helena, Hudson died while Ceylon was at sea. She arrived at the Downs on 19 May.

    EIC Voyage 4 (1810-11)

    Captain Henry Meriton left Portsmouth on 14 March 1810, bound for Madras and Bengal. Ceylon left the Cape on 13 June. He too sailed under a letter of marque, his being issued on 27 January 1810.
    In July, she was sailing off Comoros Islands in company with Windham and Astell. The convoy encountered a French frigate squadron under Guy-Victor Duperré, leading to the Action of 3 July 1810, where Minerve captured her. The French also captured Windham, while Astell managed to escape. The EIC put a value of £15,995 on its cargo aboard Ceylon.
    Lieutenant Vincent Moulac took command of Ceylon, renamed Ceylan, and the frigate squadron returned to Île de France with its prizes. Arriving, the squadron met with a British frigate squadron, leading to the Battle of Grand Port, where the British briefly recaptured Windham before the French retook her; Ceylan helped support the French squadron, which destroyed three of the British frigates, the last one surrendering when a second French frigate squadron come as reinforcements cut off the British frigate's retreat.
    From September 1810, her captors used Ceylon as a prison ship. The British recaptured her on 3 December in the invasion of Isle de France. After the British recaptured her, they sent her on her voyage. At this point she came under the command of John Stewart.

    Ceylon left Port Louis on 4 April 1811. She reached St Helena on 21 May, and arrived at The Downs on 8 August.

    Fate.

    On her return to Britain in 1811, her owners sold her. Her new owners used her as a transport until 1815. Ceylon enters the Register of Shipping for 1813 in the supplemental pages with Morse, master, and Carling & Co. as owner. Her trade was London-based transport.
    The Register of Shipping for 1815 lists her master as Hall. The other information is unchanged.
    Carling & Co.then sold her to foreign buyers and cancelled her registration on 18 September 1815.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  26. #26
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    Windham.

    Name:  Combate_de_Valparaiso_sommerscale.jpg
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    The Lautaro (Windham), right, fought against the Esmeralda (left) off Valparaíso in 1818.

    History
    Great Britain
    Name: Windham
    Owner: Sir Robert Wigram, later Joseph Andrews
    Operator: East India Company
    Route: England-India
    Builder: Perry, Wells & Green, Blackwall Shipyard[1]
    Yard number: 110
    Launched: 3 November 1800
    Fate: sold to Chile 1818
    Chile
    Name: Lautaro
    Namesake: Mapuche military commander Lautaro
    Cost: 180,000 pesos
    Acquired: 5 April 1818
    Commissioned: April 1818
    Out of service: 27 September 1828
    Honours and
    awards:
    Capture of Reina María Isabel, Perla and San Miguel
    Fate: sold as pontoon in Valparaíso, scrapped 1829
    General characteristics
    Type: East Indiaman
    Tons burthen: 820,[3] or 823​4794 or 878(bm)
    Length:
    • 146 ft 3 12 in (44.6 m) (overall)
    • 118 ft 9 12 in (36.2 m) (keel)
    Beam: 36 ft 1 14 in (11.0 m)
    Depth of hold: 14 ft 9 12 in (4.5 m)
    Propulsion: sail
    Crew:
    • East Indiaman: 100
    • Chilean Navy: 288
    Armament:
    • East Indiaman: 26 × 18 and 6-pounder guns
    • Transport (1816):14 × 9-pounder guns]
    • Chilean Navy: 42 guns

    Windham was built by Perry, Wells & Green at the Blackwall Shipyard for the East India Company (EIC) and launched in 1800. She made six voyages to India and China for the EIC. In 1809-10, the French captured her twice, but the British also recaptured her twice. The Chilean Navy bought her in 1818 and she then served in the Chilean Navy, taking part in several actions during the liberation wars in Chile and Peru. From 1824 she was a training ship until she was sold in 1828.

    East India Company.

    Windham (sometimes listed as Wyndham) performed six voyages for the EIC between 31 March 1801 and 25 June 1817, sailing to India from England, and back. Because she sailed during wartime, her owners arranged for to sail under a letter of marque, which gave her the right to take enemy vessels as prizes should the opportunity arise.

    First voyage (1801-02)

    Her first letter of marque was dated 14 January 1801 and gave the name of her captain as Thomas Grantham. Windham's first voyage was to China. She left Portsmouth on 31 March 1801 and reached Saint Helena on 10 June and Whampoa on 7 October. On her return leg she crossed the Second Bar on 21 January 1802, reached Saint Helena on 12 April, and The Downs on 12 June.

    Second voyage (1803-1804)

    With the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars in mid-1803, Graham received a new letter of marque dated 2 July 1803. This voyage took Windham to Madras and Bengal. She left The Downs on 11 February 1803 and reached Tincomallee on 16 June and Madras on 27 June. From these she sailed up and down the Indian coast, reaching Masulipatam on 7 August, Vizagapatam on 9 August, and Diamond Harbour on 21 August. Coming out of Calcutta she reached Kedgeree on 18 September and Madras on 16 October. She then returned to Diamond Harbour on 13 December. On the journey back to Britain she was back at Saugor on 5 January 1804, Vizagapatam on 27 January and Madras on 21 February. Windham was at Saint Helena between 24 March and 28 June, and reached The Downs on 9 October.

    Windham had travelled from St Helena in convoy with the East Indiamen City of London, Ceylon, and Calcutta, two vessels from the South Seas, Lively and Vulture, and Rolla, which had transported convicts to New South Wales. Their escort was HMS Courageaux. On the way the convoy ran into severe weather with the result that the Prince of Wales, which had also left St Helena with the rest, foundered with the loss of all on board; this had been her maiden voyage.

    Third voyage (1805-06)

    She received a third letter on 26 January 1805 that named John Stewart as her captain. Stewart sailed her on her third, fourth and fifth voyages. Her third voyage took Windham to Madras and China. She left Portsmouth on 8 March 1805 and reached Madras on 21 July. From there she reached Penang on 26 March, Malacca on 15 September, and Whampoa on 20 December. She crossed the Second Bar on 28 February 1806, and again reached Penang on 26 March. From there she was at Saint Helena on 17 June and The Downs by 14 August.

    Fourth voyage (1807-08)

    Windham's fourth voyage took her to Bengal and Benkulen. She left Portsmouth on 21 June 1807 and reached Diamond Harbour on 15 November and Kidderpore on 9 December. On her next leg she reached Saugor on 31 January 1808 and Benkulen on 28 March. Between 20 April and 17 June she was at Saint Helena, and she returned to The Downs on 14 August.

    Fifth voyage (1809-11) - capture and recapture.

    It was on Windham's fifth voyage that the French captured her twice, and the British recaptured her twice. Windham left Portsmouth on 7 July 1809 for Bengal. She reached Madeira on 19 July.
    During the Mauritius campaign of 1809–1811 the French frigate Vénus captured her and two other Indiamen in the Action of 18 November 1809. In the action the Windham had six men killed and 18 wounded.
    The British frigate HMS Magicienne under Captain Lucius Curtis recaptured her on 29 December. In February 1810 Windham was at the Cape of Good Hope. Stewart and her crew rejoined her, having arrived there in a cartel.

    Windham resumed her journey, only to fall afoul of the French frigate Bellone near Johanna Island at the Action of 3 July 1810. HMS Sirius recaptured Windham at the Battle of Grand Port on 21 August 1810 and sent her with a prize crew to Île Bourbon. There Windham received a new crew and captain, Joseph Lautour.

    She and another recaptured Indiaman, Ceylon, arrived back in Britain in April 1811. Ceylon brought with her a cargo from Île Bourbon and Windham one from Isle de France (now Mauritius).

    Non-EIC voyages.

    There is some ambiguity about the Windham's whereabouts between her fifth and sixth voyages for the EIC. The summary vessel history in the National Archives suggests that Windham returned to Britain, arriving in The Downs on 8 August 1811.

    There was a "Windham transport" at the British invasion of Java in August–September 1811. The East India Company provided the services of several of their ships, led by Malabar under Commodore John Hayes. These were Ariel, Aurora, Mornington, Nautilus, Psyche, Thetis, and Vestal. This is in addition to the transport vessels. The "Windham transport" carried the 3rd volunteer battalion to Cheribon.

    A Windham carried the 46th Regiment of Foot to New South Wales. She, General Hewett, and Wanstead left England on 23 August 1813, initially under escort by HMS Akbar. They arrived in Sydney on 11 February 1814. An American letter of marque captured a Windham off China later in 1814, but gave her up after taking part of her cargo.

    On 16 August 1814, Windham ran on shore after leaving the dock at Bengal. She had not suffered material damage and was gotten off on the next tide. She then returned to dock.

    Sixth voyage (1816-1817)

    Her captain for her sixth and last voyage for the EIC was Joseph Andrews. Because this voyage took place after the end of the Napoleonic Wars Windham did not have a letter of marque. She left the Downs on 21 April 1816 and reached Penang and then Malacca on 7 September. She reached Whampoa on 11 October. She left China, crossing the Second Bar on 10 January 1817, reached St Helena on 18 March, and the Downs on 23 May.

    The EIC then sold her to Joseph Andrews.

    Chilean career.

    José Antonio Álvarez Condarco, agent of the Chilean government in London, arranged the purchase of the ship and the recruitment of unemployed naval officers and crew. Windham arrived at Valparaíso on 5 March 1818 and the government paid 180,000 pesos for the ship. She was refitted with 44 guns, renamed Lautaro, and given a crew of Chilean and foreign seamen. A month later she went to sea under the command of George O'Brien, a former Royal Navy officer.

    On 26–27 April 1818 she fought against the Spanish frigate Esmeralda and brigantine Pezuela outside Valparaiso. Although the attack on Esmeralda cost Captain O'Brien and his boarding party their lives, Lautaro did succeed in lifting the Spanish blockade of Valparaíso. Later that year Lautaro, under the American, Captain Charles Wooster, was in the squadron under Commodore Blanco Encalada that surprised the relieving Spanish fleet at Talcahuano on 28 October. Lautaro and San Martín captured the Spanish frigate Reina María Isabel (later the Chilean frigate O'Higgins), the Perla, and the San Miguel.

    In the first half of 1819, after Lord Cochrane had taken command of the Chilean navy, Lautaro, under Captain Martin Guise, took part in the blockade of Callao, though a planned cutting out expedition against the Spanish fleet in the harbour was not successful. On 7 November, returning to Peru, Lautaro and Galverino successfully attacked the shipping in the defended port of Pisco. In 1820 she participated in the Freedom Expedition of Perú, culminating in the successful cutting out at Callao of the Spanish flagship Esmeralda by Cochrane and Guise on 5 November.

    From 1821 Lautaro was commanded by Paul Delano, Guise having been transferred to the captured Esmeralda, now Valdivia. During a period of considerable unrest on Chilean Navy vessels due to lack of pay, Lautaro was involved in the seizing by Cochrane of the Peruvian schooner Sacramento. The liberator José de San Martín had sent Sacramento to Ancón Bay with the entire currency of the State Treasury and the mint at Lima. Lautaro returned to Valparaiso, and in mid-1822 was still in need of extensive repairs. Lautaro was able to sail later in 1822 to recover Valdivia although, on 23 October in Talcahuano, the crew mutinied against Captain Wooster, who had returned to Chilean service and to his former ship that year. In January 1823 Wooster took her to blockade and attack the island of Chiloé, the last stronghold of Spanish royalists.

    In 1824 Lautaro became the Chilean Navy's Naval academy (Academia Náutica) at Valparaiso.
    On 27 September 1828 she was ordered to be sold, but with no bidders at auction she was converted into a pontoon. She was broken up in 1829.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  27. #27
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    Euphrates

    History

    Name: Euphrates
    Namesake: Euphrates
    Owner: ·EIC voyage #1:Thomas Hurry
    ·EIC voyage #2:Henry Cooke
    ·EIC voyages #3-5:Andrew Timbrell
    Builder: Francis Hurry & Co., Newcastle-on-Tyne
    Launched: 7 June 1803
    Fate: Wrecked 1813
    General characteristics
    Tons burthen: 590, or 596, or 596​5094, or 632 (bm)
    Length: ·Overall:127 ft 10 in (39.0 m)
    ·Keel:102 ft 2 12 in (31.2 m)
    Beam: 33 ft 1 12 in (10.1 m)
    Depth of hold: 13 ft 7 in (4.1 m)
    Propulsion: Sail
    Complement: ·1803:50
    ·1805:55
    Armament: ·1803:22 × 12-pounder guns + 4 swivel guns
    ·1805:22 × 12-pounder guns
    Notes: Three decks

    Euphrates was launched in 1803 as a East Indiaman. Between 1803 and 1812 she made four voyages to India for the British East India Company (EIC). During these voyages she participated as a transport in two military campaigns, the capture of the Cape of Good Hope and of Mauritius. She was wrecked in 1813 towards the end of the outward leg of a fifth voyage to India.

    Career.

    EIC voyage #1 (1803–1805)

    Captain George Welstead acquired a letter of marque on 2 September 1803. He sailed from Portsmouth on 28 September, bound for Madras and Bengal. Euphrates reached Madras on 20 February 1804, was at Vizagapatam on 20 March, and arrived at Calcutta on 7 April. Homeward bound, she was at Saugor on 1 September, and Madras again on 22 September. She reached St Helena on 31 December, and arrived at Long Reach on 24 March 1805.

    There were two incidents of note on this voyage. As Euphrates was sailing up the Hooghli River she grounded. However Welstead was able to get her off. In 1805 Lloyd's of London presented him with a silver tureen as a thanks for his efforts in refloating her.

    Then, as Euphrates was coming into London at the end of her voyage, HMS Utile pressed eight of her crew. Utile also lent her eight crew men to work Euphrates into dock.

    EIC voyage #2 (1805–1807)

    Captain Philip Herbert acquired a letter of marque on 16 July 1805. Euphrates then sailed for St Helena, Penang, and Bengal. Outward bound, she was part of a fleet of transports and East Indiamen carrying some 5000 soldiers under the command of Major-general Sir David Baird to attack the Dutch at the Cape of Good Hope. A small naval squadron under the orders of Commodore Sir Home Popham escorted the transports.

    Euphrates was at Cork on 31 August, and Funchal on 29 October. She was at St Helena on 13 December, and reached the Cape on 8 March 1806.

    She was at Penang on 1 June, and arrived at Calcutta on 18 July. She had parted from Northumberland off the Andaman Islands on 15 July; Northumberland did not arrive at Calcutta until 4 August.
    Homeward bound, Euphrates was at Saugor on 29 December, reached St Helena on 18 April 1807, and arrived at Blackwall on 5 July.

    EIC voyage #3 (1809–1809)

    Captain Herbert sailed from Portsmouth on 15 April 1808, bound for Madras and Bengal. She reached Madras on 16 August and arrived at Diamond Harbour on 11 September. Homeward bound, she was at Saugor on 10 January 1809, reached St Helena on 29 April, and arrived at Blackwall on 17 July.

    EIC voyage #4 (1810–1812)

    Captain Herbert sailed from Portsmouth on 14 March 1810, bound for Madras and Bengal. Euphrates reached the Cape on 22 May.
    She left the Cape on 13 June as part of a convoy that also included the East Indiamen Ceylon, Windham, and Astell, and one other. After Euphrates struck a rock and started to take on water, she and the fifth Indiaman turned back. In the action of 3 July 1810, the French captured Ceylon and Windham; Astell escaped.
    Euphrates finally reached Madras on 10 September. There the British government hired her as a transport for its forthcoming invasion of Isle de France.
    Euphrates was at Mauritius on 30 November, together with the other invasion vessels, and the actual invasion took place on 3 December. She returned to Calcutta on 7 April 1811 Calcutta. Homeward bound, she was at Saugor on 2 July.
    She and Monarch left Bengal on 6 September. Euphrates returned to Madras on 26 September, and she and Monarch then left on 4 October. Euphrates reached Mauritius on 17 November, and she and Monarch left on 19 November. Euphrates reached St Helena on 3 January 1812.

    There she and Monarch joined Northampton, and the three vessels sailed on 21 January with HMS Java and HMS Madagascar as escorts. At some point the escorts left the Indiamen.

    While Northampton, Euprates, and Monarch were in the Channel, they encountered the British frigate HMS Nayaden, which signaled that a flotilla of five French ships of the line that had escaped from Lorient were in the vicinity and that she had exchanged some shots with them. The French, bound for Brest, continued on their route without giving chase. Monarch and Euphrates arrived at Portsmouth on 23 March. Northampton arrived at The Downs on 30 March. Euphrates arrived at Blackwall on 3 April.

    Fate.

    Captain Philip Herbert sailed from Portsmouth on 14 July 1812, bound for Bengal. Euphrates was in Columbo Roads on 21 December. She left Columbo on 29 December and at 11 p.m. on 1 January 1813 grounded on rocks 100 yards off Dondra Head, Ceylon. Weather conditions were favourable so all aboard were able to get to shore. Much of the baggage and some of the cargo was also saved. The EIC put the value of its cargo aboard her at £9,545.
    Last edited by Bligh; 03-30-2019 at 09:08.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  28. #28
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    HMS Magicienne.

    Name:  450px-Battle_of_St_Domingo_PU5760-cropped.jpg
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    History
    France
    Name: Magicienne
    Namesake: "Sorceress"
    Ordered: 7 February 1777
    Builder: Toulon
    Laid down: 6 August 1777
    Launched: 1 August 1778
    Commissioned: October 1778
    Captured: 2 September 1781
    United Kingdom
    Name: Magicienne
    Acquired: 2 September 1781 by capture
    Honours and
    awards:
    Naval General Service Medal with clasp "St. Domingo"
    Fate: Scuttled on 24 August 1810
    General characteristics
    Class and type: Magicienne class frigate
    Displacement: 600 tonnes & 1260 tonnes fully loaded
    Length: 44.2 m (145 ft)
    Beam: 11.2 m (37 ft)
    Draught: 5.2 m (17 ft) (22 French feet)
    Armament: ·Upper deck:26 × 12-pounder long guns
    ·
    QD:4 × 6-pounder guns
    ·
    Fc:2 × 6-pounder guns
    Armour: Timber


    Magicienne
    was a frigate of the French Navy, lead ship of her class. The British captured her in 1781 and she served with the Royal Navy until her crew burned her in 1810 to prevent her capture after she grounded at Isle de France (now Mauritius). During her service with the Royal Navy she captured several privateers and participated in the Battle of San Domingo.

    French service and capture.

    Magicienne was built to a design by Joseph-Marie-Blaise Coulomb at Toulon. She was the first of 12 vessels built to her design.

    She served in Orvilliers' fleet under captain Brun de Boades. HMS Chatham captured her on 2 September 1781 off Cape Ann. In the action the French lost 60 men killed and 40 wounded; the British lost one man killed and one man wounded. She was described as being of 800 tons, 36 guns and 280 men.
    A prize crew took her to Halifax where she was recommissioned in the Royal Navy as HMS Magicienne under Thomas Graves, on the North America station. He then sailed her to Jamaica in December.

    British service.

    On 15 July 1782, Magicienne and Prudent captured three French merchant vessels carrying sugar from Martinique to Europe. These were the ship Tea Bloom, the snow Balmboom, and the brig Juno. Juno was also carrying rum.

    On 2 January 1783, Magicienne, met the Sibylle.[Note 1] The ships fought inconclusively, reducing each other to wrecks before parting. In September 1783 Magicienne was paid off and fitted for ordinary at Chatham on 30 October.

    French Revolutionary Wars.

    On 29 April Magicienne was in company with Aquilon, Diamond, Minerva, Syren, Camilla, and Childers, when Acquilon captured the Mary.

    On 1 November 1796, Magicienne, under the command of Captain William Henry Ricketts, captured the French brig Cerf Volant (enseigne de vaisseau Camau), off San Domingo. Cerf Volant was flying a flag of truce and had on board a midshipman and several British seamen, prisoners from Hindostan, to give the appearance that Cerf Volant was a cartel. She was carrying delegates from the Southern Department of St. Domingo to the French Legislative Body, and hidden dispatches for the Directory General, that a search the next day uncovered. The hidden dispatches violated the truce flag and made Cerf Volant a legitimate prize. The search also uncovered a box of money. Though Cerf-Volant was only three years old, the Royal Navy did not take her into service.

    In early 1797, HMS Magicienne captured two privateers named Poisson Volant. One was armed with 12 guns and had a crew of 80 men, and the other was armed with five guns and had a crew of 50 men. One was captured on 13 January, and the other on 16 February. Bounty bills (head money) was paid in September 1827. A later account narrates that Poisson Volant was a Dutch privateer, out of Curacao, and that Magicienne sent her into Jamaica to be condemned as a prize.

    In late 1797 or early 1798, Magicienne, the troopship Regulus, and the brig-sloopDiligence captured the French privateer Brutus, of nine guns.

    After the crew of Hermione mutinied and murdered her captain, Hugh Pigot, in 1797, Magicienne was involved in the efforts to capture the mutineers and bring them to trial.

    On 23 November 1800 Captain Sir Richard Strachan in Captain chased a French convoy in to the Morbihan where it sheltered under the protection of shore batteries and a 24-gun corvette. Magicienne was able to force the corvette Réolaise onto the shore at Port Navalo. The hired armedcuttersSuworow, Nile and Lurcher then towed in four boats with a cutting-out party of seamen and marines from Captain and Magicienne. Although the cutting-out party landed under heavy grape and small arms fire, it was able to set the corvette on fire; shortly thereafter Réolaise blew up. Only one British seaman, a crewman from Suworow, was killed. However, Suworow's sails and rigging were so badly cut up that Captain had to tow her.

    In January 1801, Magicienne, with Doris in sight, captured in the Channel the French letter of marque Huron, which was returning from Mauritius with a highly valuable cargo of ivory, cochineal, indigo, tea, sugar, pepper, cinnamon, ebony, etc. Ogilvy described her as a "remarkable fine Ship, fails well, is pierced for Twenty Guns, had Eighteen mounted, but threw thorn all overboard except Four during the Chase; I think her a Vessel well calculated for His Majesty's Service."

    Napoleonic Wars.

    On 24 July 1804 Amethyst, while in company with Magicienne, captured the Agnela.
    Early in March 1805, Magicienne and Reindeer sent two boats each, under the command of Lieutenant John Kelly Tudor of Reindeer, to cut out a 4-gun schooner from under a battery in Aguadilla Bay, Puerto Rico.

    In 1806, while under the command of Captain Adam Mackenzie, she cruised in the Caribbean. On 25 January 1806, Magicienne was in company with Penguin in the Mona Passage when Magicienne captured the Spanish packet ship Carmen after a chase of 12 hours. Carmen was pierced for 14 guns but carrying only two, and had a crew of 18 men under the command of an officer of the same rank as a commander in the British Navy.

    Magicienne
    joined John Thomas Duckworth's squadron on 5 February, which led to her taking part in the Battle of San Domingo. Duckworth sent Magicienne and Acasta to reconnoitre, and it was they that signaled that the French were at anchor, but getting under way. Duckworth formed up the smaller ships, Acasta, Magicienne, Kingfisher and Epervier, windward of the line-of-battle ships to keep them out of the action. Donegal forced the surrender of the Brave and directed Acasta to take possession of her, whilst the Donegal moved on to engage the other French ships. Brave was one of the three that the British captured, the other two being the Jupiter and the Alexandre. Their captains drove two French ships, the flagship, Impérial, and the Diomède, on shore between Nizao and Point Catalan, their hulls broadside to the beach and their bottoms stove in by the reefs that lay offshore, to prevent their capture.

    On 8 February Duckworth sent boats from Acasta and Magicienne to the wrecks. Boarding unopposed, the boat parties removed the remaining French crewmen as prisoners and set both ships on fire. Lastly, in 1847 the Admiralty awarded the surviving claimants from the action the Naval General Service Medal with clasp "St. Domingo".

    On 18 August Magicienne was in company with Penguin, Franchise, and Veteran as they escorted a fleet of 109 merchantmen from Jamaica to Britain. The convoy cleared the Gulf of Florida but between 19 and 23 August they ran into a gale that did not fully abate until 25 August. Initial reports had nine vessels foundering, with the crew of some being saved; later reports put the loss at 13 merchant vessels foundered and two abandoned but later salvaged. Franchise lost her fore-mast and main-top-mast but together with Penguin managed to bring 71 merchant vessels back to England. (Others arrived earlier or later, and some went to America.) Magicienne, however, was so badly damaged that she had to put in at Bermuda for repairs.

    In December 1809, Magicienne served in the Indian Ocean. During the Mauritius campaign of 1809–1811, the French Navy captured the East IndiamanWindham in the Action of 18 November 1809 but the newly arrived Magicienne under Captain Lucius Curtis recaptured her on 29 December 1809.

    Loss.



    In March 1810, Magicienne was part of a frigate squadron comprising Iphigenia and Leopard, later joined by Nereide and Sirius.
    The summer of 1810 saw a campaign against the French Indian Ocean possessions; The Île de Bourbon (Réunion) was captured in July. In August, attention was turned to Mauritius, where the British attempted to land troops to destroy coastal batteries and signals around Grand Port; the attempt turned sour, however, when two French forty-gun frigates, Bellone and Minerve, the 18-gun corvette Victor, and two East Indiaman prizes entered the harbour and took up defensive positions at the head of the main entrance channel. The French also moved the channel markers to confuse the British approach.

    Battle of Grand Port.

    In the run-up to the battle, Sirius re-captured Windham, which the French had captured a second time in the Action of 3 July 1810. On the 23 August 1810 the British squadron entered the channel at Grand Port. Sirius was the first to run aground, followed by Magicienne and Néréide. Iphigenia prudently anchored in the channel some distance from the action. The French vessels concentrated all their gunfire first against Néréide and then against Magicienne.
    The battle continued without interruption all night and on the 24 August the French boarded the defenceless Néréide. Once the French flag was hoisted on what was left of the foremast of the Néréide, Magicienne and the Sirius began an intense cross fire against their enemies. Still, in the evening her crew had to abandon Magicienne, setting her on fire as they left her. Magicienne lost eight men killed and 20 wounded.
    The battle cost the British all four frigates, including Iphigenia and Sirius.
    Last edited by Bligh; 03-30-2019 at 09:06.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

  29. #29
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    Have you completely forgotten the part played by Lucky Jack Aubrey?

  30. #30
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    Lucky to come out of it smelling of roses to be sure Jonas.
    That catastrophic action is the sort of thing nightmares are made of after a night on the Port and cheese.
    Rob.
    The Business of the commander-in-chief is first to bring an enemy fleet to battle on the most advantageous terms to himself, (I mean that of laying his ships close on board the enemy, as expeditiously as possible); and secondly to continue them there until the business is decided.

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